Wednesday, December 25, 2013
亚伯兰 Abram ( 1948 BCE – 2123 BCE ) 生于迦勒低 ( Chaldeans ) 的吾珥 ( Ur )，是美索不达米亚 ( Mesopotamia ) 的一座古城，位于幼发拉底 ( Euphrates ) 河畔南部，今遗址位于伊拉克 ( Iraq )境内。
亚伯兰的父亲叫他拉 ( Terah )。亚伯兰为长子，下有弟弟拿鹤 ( Nahor ) 和哈兰 ( Haran )。亚伯兰娶同父异母的妹妹撒莱 ( Sarai ) 为妻。
大弟拿鹤娶侄女密迦为妻，生八子 : 乌斯 ( Uz ), 布斯 ( Buz ), 基母利 ( Kemuel ), 基薛( Kesed ), 哈琐 ( Hazo ), 必达 ( Pildash ), 益拉 ( Jidlaph ) 和彼土利 ( Bethuel )。彼土利生拉班 ( Laban ) 和利百加 ( Rebekah )。
小弟哈兰英年早逝，遗下一子二女 : 罗得 ( Lot )，密迦 ( Milkah ) 和亦迦 ( Iskah )。
亚伯兰的父亲他拉带了亚伯兰和罗得离开家乡吾珥，要往迦南去 ( Canaan )。中途停在哈兰 (
后来耶和华上帝指示亚伯兰去迦南。亚伯兰( Abram ) 离开哈兰到迦南时已75岁。与他同去的除了妻子撒莱 ( Sarai )，还有侄子罗得 ( Lot )，和他们所有的积蓄和佣人。
亚伯兰和罗得有钱有业，离开哈兰到陌生的迦南，开始新的生活，因该不难。到了神所指示的地方 - 迦南 ( Canaan )，他们却不定居下来，反而迁到南地 ( Negev )。后来遇到饥荒，又到埃及 ( Egypt ) 暂居。
亚伯兰无奈又离开埃及回到迦南。原来亚伯兰和罗得的总资产太多，迦南地容不下两个大财主，两家人常为牧地相争。亚伯兰顾念骨肉之情，为了不伤和气，决定和罗得分居。罗得选了东边约旦平原 ( Jordan )，亚伯兰留在迦南。分了楚河汉界，两人从此各自为政。
罗得定居所多玛 ( Sodom )，因此被卷入五王叛乱，被霸王基大老瑪 ( Kedorlaomer ) 所掳。亚伯兰率领318条好汉相救，好不威风！仗后，罗得继续在所多玛定居，所多玛人和蛾摩拉人 ( Gomorrah ) 道德沉沦，乱搞男女关系，罪恶甚重，人神共愤之！连住在所多玛的罗得也受了影响。
上帝决定要毁了所多玛和蛾摩拉，命罗得全家即刻离城。罗得迟迟不走，不但不拼命逃上山，却去了附近的琐珥 ( Zoar )。妻子还往后一看，变成一根盐柱。罗得后来离开琐珥上山，躲在洞穴里，和两个女儿乱伦生了儿子，摩押 ( Moab ) 和便亚米 ( Ben Ammi )，就是摩押人 ( Moabites ) 和便亚米人 ( Ammonites ) 的始祖。
撒莱让埃及籍使女夏甲 ( Hagar ) 与亚伯兰同房，夏甲便怀了孕，生了一个儿子，亚伯兰取名为以實瑪利 ( Ishmael )， 意思是“神听见”。岂不知，这并不是神的计划。亚伯兰一直认为：神计划、人执行，路始终是人走出来的。（箴16：9）
当亚伯兰99岁高龄时，耶和华上帝向他显现，又重提应许一事，并以割礼为据。同时神给亚伯兰新名叫亚伯拉罕 ( Abraham )， 撒莱改为撒拉 ( Sarah )，为万国之母。亚伯拉罕不以为意。
迦南其实并不肥沃，崎岖不平，雨量不多。当年亚伯拉罕和罗得分家时，罗得早就知道，亚伯拉罕也不是不知。亚伯拉罕义财难全，无奈留下。上帝怎么会给他这么一块不毛之地？埃及和约旦 ( Jordan ) 才是肥田嘛！
亚伯拉罕100岁高龄时，撒拉生了一个儿子，取名叫以撒 ( Isaac ) 。撒拉见以实玛利日后可能跟以撒争家产，要求亚伯拉罕指使夏甲母子离开。上帝也没有反对，还说会让以实玛利的后嗣成立一国。
Friday, November 1, 2013
When Ibrahim ( Abraham ) was 99 years old, Allah decided to test his faith, in a dream Allah commanded Ibrahim to offer up 13-years-old Ismail ( Ishmael ) for sacrifice. As Ibrahim prepared to submit to Allah’s will, Syaitan ( Satan ) tried to dissuade him from carrying out Allah’s commandment. Yet, Ibrahim drove Saitan away by throwing pebbles at him. Thus stones are thrown at jamrah pillars to commemorate the rejection of Saitan.
Although Ibrahim was ready to sacrifice his dearest possession, he could not just bring Ismail to the place of sacrifice without Ismail’s consent. And so Ibrahim consulted Ishmael whether he was willing to give up his life in fulfillment of Allah’s command. This consultation would be a test of Ismail’s maturity in faith, love and commitment for Allah, willingness to obey his father, and readiness to sacrifice his own life for the sake of Allah.
Ismail without hesitation submitted to Allah’s will.
When Ibrahim attempted to cut Ismail’s throat, Allah interfered by protecting Ismail from being harmed. Allah too prepared a ram in replacement of the sacrifice.
As a reward for Ibrahim’s faith in Allah, he was granted with a second son, Ishak ( Isaac )
Abraham was 100 years old when Isaac was born to him through Sarah, his wife. ( Genesis 21:5 ) One day, God tested Abraham, by commanding him to bring his young son, Isaac to be sacrificed as an offering on a mountain in the region of Moriah. Abraham obeyed God’s commandment without hesitation.
Early the next morning, Abraham took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac, together with wood loaded on a donkey. They reached the sacrifice site on the third day.
Abraham had his servants waited with the donkey, while Isaac carried the wood, and himself carried the fire and the knife. When asked by Isaac of the whereabouts of the sacrificial lamb, Abraham assured Isaac that God will provide one.
Yet when they reached the place, Abraham built an altar, bound Isaac and him on the wood. As he was about to slay Isaac, an angel appeared and stopped him.
Abraham saw and caught a ram that was caught in a nearby bush, and sacrificed it instead.
God then reassured Abraham that his descendants will be as numerous as the stars and the sand, and through his offspring all nations will be blessed. ( Genesis 22:1-18)
Tuesday, October 15, 2013
Aidiladha 音译为献祭节、也称哈芝节 ( Hari Raya Haji ) 、古尔邦节 ( Hari Raya Korban )， 是伊斯兰教的重要节日。落于回历每年的12 月10 日（ Zulhijjah / Dhu al-Hijjah ) 。
该节日是为了纪念亚伯拉罕 （ Ibrahim / Abraham ) 向真主阿拉 ( Allah ) 献祭爱子以实玛利 ( Ismail / Ishmael )，以示顺服。
|The Sacrifice of Isaac, Rembrandt, 1635|
Monday, October 14, 2013
Sunday, September 29, 2013
|10 Jacob left Beersheba and set out for Harran. 11 When he reached a
certain place, he stopped for the night because the sun had set. Taking one
of the stones there, he put it under his head and lay down to sleep. 12 He had a dream in
which he saw a stairway resting on the earth, with its top reaching to
heaven, and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. 13 There above it stood
the Lord, and he said: “I am the Lord, the God of your father Abraham and the
God of Isaac. I will give you and your descendants the land on which you are
Your descendants will be like the dust of the earth, and you will spread out
to the west and to the east, to the north and to the south. All peoples on
earth will be blessed through you and your offspring.15 I am with you and will
watch over you wherever you go, and I will bring you back to this land. I
will not leave you until I have done what I have promised you.” 16 When Jacob awoke from his sleep, he thought, “Surely the Lord
is in this place, and I was not aware of it.” 17 He was afraid and said, “How awesome is this place! This is
none other than the house of God; this is the gate of heaven.” 18 Early the next morning Jacob took the stone he had placed
under his head and set it up as a pillar and poured oil on top of it. 19 He called that place
Bethel, though the city used to be called Luz.
Genesis 28 ( New International Version )
|10 雅各出了别是巴，向哈兰走去。 11到了一个地方，因为太阳落了，就在那里住宿，便拾起那地方的一块石头枕在头下，在那里躺卧睡了。 12梦见一个梯子立在地上，梯子的头顶着天，有神的使者在梯子上上去下来（或作：站在他旁边。） 13和华站在梯子以上，说：“我是耶和华你祖亚伯拉罕的神，也是以撒的神，我要将你现在所躺卧之地赐给你和你的后裔。 14你的后裔必像地上的尘沙那样多，必向东西南北开展。地上万族必因你和你的后裔得福。 15我也与你同在，你无论往哪里去，我必保佑你，领你归回这地，总不离弃你，直到我成全了向你所应许的。” |
创世记 28 ( 和合本 )
Jacob’s Ladder is a ladder to heaven that the biblical Jacob dreams about during his flight from his brother Esau.
Jacob’s Ladder may also refer to many things, among them are :
· Gholtage travelling arc, a device for producing a continuous train of large sparks.
· Crepuscular rays, rays of sunlight that appear to radiate through gaps in clouds etc.
· Polemonium , a genus of flowering plants.
· Rope ladder, specialized ladder used at sea.
· a Rope course
· an Exercise equipment
· a type of pocket knife
· a quilt block pattern
· a String figure pattern
· a Folk toy, consisting of blocks of woods held together by strings
· Short ribs in the UK
· a non-compact surface in mathematics
Wednesday, June 12, 2013
稗子的比喻 ( 和合本 CUV )
The Parable of the Wheat and the Tares ( NKJV)
24 Another parable He put forth to them, saying: “The kingdom of heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field; 25 but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat and went his way. 26 But when the grain had sprouted and produced a crop, then the tares also appeared. 27 So the servants of the owner came and said to him, ‘Sir, did you not sow good seed in your field? How then does it have tares?’ 28 He said to them, ‘An enemy has done this.’ The servants said to him, ‘Do you want us then to go and gather them up?’ 29 But he said, ‘No, lest while you gather up the tares you also uproot the wheat with them. 30 Let both grow together until the harvest, and at the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, ‘First gather together the tares and bind them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn.’”
Tares was translated from Greek word ζιζάνια (zizania), plural of ζιζάνιον (zizanion). The word is thought to mean darnel ( Lolium temulentum ), a ryegrass which looks much like wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) in its early stages of growth. The similarity between the two plants is so great that darnel is referred to as “false wheat” in some region.
The recognizable differences are apparent when the ear appears. The spikes of darnel are more slender, with single glume, and black in colour. Whilst the wheal will have fuller spikes, with double glume, and appear brown when ripe.
The darnel can be infected by a fungus of the genus Neoryphodium, which will produce poison which is intoxicated and can be fatal. Thus it is logical to sabotage the enemies’ wheat field by sowing darnel.
Wednesday, May 1, 2013
马太福音 7:12 ( 新译本CNV )
World War I
1914, July 28th – WW I began.
1914 – Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in WW I.
1918, November 11th – WW I ended.
1920, August 10th – Treaty of Sèvres signed between the Ottoman Empire and Allies. Palestine placed under British mandate.
1920, July 1st – Palestine governed under a civil administration
1923, September 29th – British Mandate for Palestine came into effect. The Mandate includes Palestine and Transjordan.
1946, May 25th – Transjordan gain independence. Officially called Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
1948, May 14th – British Mandate ended
United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine
The United Nation Partition Plan for Palestine would, after the termination of the British Mandate, lead to the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and the Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements : Arab nationalism and Jewish nationalism.
It was accepted by the Jewish but rejected by leaders of the Arabs.
1947, November 30th – Civil War started between Arabs and Jewish.
Independent State of Israel
1948, May 15th – First Arab-Israel War began with invasion of Arab States
1949 – Armistice Agreements signed between Israel and Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria.
The Armistice Agreements saw Israel had control of Galilee, Jezreel, Negev, West Jerusalem and the Costal Plain. The Gaza Strip and West Bank were occupied by Egypt and Jordan respectively.
1949, May 11th – Israel admitted as a member of the UN.
1967, June 5th – Third Arab-Israel War (Six-Day War) began with Israel bombing Egyptian air-fields.
Israel took control of West Bank (from Jordan), Gaza Strip (from Egypt), East Jerusalem, Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsular.
West Bank remained under military occupation. Gaza Strip remained independent of Israel. Golan Heights and East Jerusalem occupied by Israel. Sinai Peninsular has returned to Egypt in 1979 as part of Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.
Today’s State of Israel is divided into 6 administrative districts : Northern, Haifa, Center, Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, and Southern. Districts are further divided into 15 sub-districts.
East Jerusalem and Golan Heights considered part of Israel territory. East Jerusalem has been included in the Jerusalem District as of 1967. Golan Heights aligned into Northern District.
West Bank and Gaza Strip remained Israeli-occupied territories. Israel control the airspace, territorial waters and border crossings. Administration is under Palestinian Authority.
538 BC - Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered the Babylon and took over its empire. The Achaemenid Empire spanned from Asia to Africa and Europe.
538–518 BC - Israelites were allowed to return to Judah and rebuilt the Temple ( Ezra 1:1-4 ; 6:13-18).
456 BC - a second group led by Ezra and Nehemiah returned.
334 BC - Alexander the Great defeated the Persian and conquered the empire. After the death of Alexander, his generals divided the empire among themselves. Judah became part of the Seleucid Empire.
After Mattathias death, his son Judas Maccabee led guerrilla attacks against Seleucid army. Jerusalem was recaptured and the Temple cleansed. The celebratory festival of Hanukkah instituted. ( 1 Maccabees ; 2 Maccabees ; The Wars of the Jews )
160 BC - Judas died in a battle. His brother Jonathan succeeded as army commander and High Priest.
142 BC - Jonathan was assassinated, and was succeeded by Simon. Simon came to terms with Demitrius II Necator, the Seleucid king. Maccabees won autonomy, yet the region remained a province of the Seleucid Empire. Simon led the people in peace and prosperity, until he was assassinated.
129 BC - Judea was freed from Seleucid rule on the death of Antiochus VII Sidetes, the last Seleucid king.
63 BC - Judea became a protectorate of Roman Empire, coming under the administration of a governor. Judea was allowed a king.
During the time of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus conquered Madaba, Sehechum, Transjordan, Samaria, Galilee and Idumea ( Edom ). Edomites were forced to convert to Judaism. The Edomites were gradually integrated into the Judean nation, and some of them reach high ranking positions.
During the time of Hasmonean ruler Alexander Jannaeus, Edomite Antipas was appointed governor of Edom. Antipas’ son, Antipater was the chief adviser to Hasmonean ruler Hyrcanus II.
47 BC - Julius Caesar appointed Antipater as procurator of Judea. Antipater’s sons, Phasael and Herold as governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively.
40 BC - Herod made king of the Jews by the Roman Senate.
19 BC - Herod commissioned expansion of the Temple.
4 BC - Herod the Great died. Judea made a Roman province. Judea was divided among his three sons. Herod Archelaus ruled Judea, Edom and Samaria. Herold Philip I ruled Decapolis. Trachonitis and Iturea. Herod Antipas ruled Galilee and Perea.
6 AD - Judea made a Roman province.
34 AD - Agrippa I ruled Galilee and Perea. In 41 AD Judea added to his rule.
70 AD - Herod’s Temple destroyed by Roman troops during the Seige of Jerusalem, ending the Great Jewish Revolt.
92 AC - Herodian Dynasty ended. Judea fully incorporated into Roman province.
285 AD - Roman emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire’s administration into eastern and western halves.
324 AD - Roman emperor Constantine I transferred the eastern capital from Nicomedia to Constantinople.
395 AD - following the death of Roman emperor Theodosius I, Roman Empire divided politically
476 AD - fall of Western Roman Empire.
614 AD, Jerusalem conquered by Persian, Jews were left to self-govern.
617 AD, Byzatine recaptured Jerusalem, Judaism banned, Jews fled to Baltic.
636 AD - Palestine conquered by the Arab
691 AD - Dome of the Rock constructed on Temple Mount.
705 AD - Al-Aqsa Mosquue constructed on Temple Mount.
Crusader States Vs Ayyubid Dynasty
1071 AD - Muslims of Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantine army in Manzikert. Byzantine emperor Alexis I plead Pope Urban II of Roman Catholic in Rome to the aid to free Jerusalem from Muslim rule.
Crusader states were created in the Levant during the crusades :
1098–1149 : County of Edessa
1098–1268 : Principality of Antioch
1099–1291 : Kingdom of Jerusalem
1104–1289 : County of Tripoli
1187 - Egyptian Muslims of Ayyubid Dynasty concurred Jerusalem.
1193 - civil war within Ayyubid Dynasty
1250 - Mamluk overthrew Ayyubid Dynasty in Egypt
1260 - Mongols overthrew Ayyubid Dynasty in Aleppo
1341 - fall of Ayyubid Dynasty
1291 - Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil conquered Acre, capital of Kingdom of Jerusalem
1799 – Napoleon briefly occupied Palestine
1878 – First modern Jewish settlement founded in Petah Tikva.
Large scare return of Jew from the diaspora back to Israel began in 1882.
1882-1903 : First Aliyah – 35,000 Jews returned
1904-1914 : Second Aliyah – 40,000 Jews returned
1919-1923 : Third Aliyah – 40,000 Jews returned
1924-1929 : Fourth Aliyah – 82,000 Jews returned
1929-1939 : Fifth Aliyah – 250,000 Jews returned
1909 – First Hebrew-speakng city, Ahuzat Bayit ( later Tel Aviv ) established.
Tuesday, April 30, 2013
The Twelve Tribes
The Transjordan Tribes
After defeating the Amorites, the Reubenites and Gadites, who had very large herds and flocks, saw that the lands of Jazer and Gilead were suitable for livestock. So they came to Moses and Eleazar the priest and to the leaders of the community, and asked for allocation of the land. As the Reubenites and Gadites promised to join in battles with the rest of the Israelites in the Promised Land, Mosses agreed to their request. ( Numbers 32:1-38 ; Deuteronomy 3:12-13, 16-17 ; Deuteronomy 3:15-28 )
The descendants of Makir son of Manasseh captured Gilead form the Amorites, and they settled there. Jair, another descendant of Manasseh, captured their settlements and named them Havvoth Jair. Nobah captured Kenath and its surrounding settlements and called it Nobah. ( Numbers 32:39-42 ; Deuteronomy 3:13-15 ; Deuteronomy 3:29-31 )
The Two and Half Tribes
After the death of Moses, Joshua was installed as leader. Joshua lead the Israelites into the Promise Land, as commanded by the Lord. The land the Israelites conquered were divided among the nine and half tribes.
The allotment for the tribe of Judah, according to its clans, extended down to the territory of Edom, to the Desert of Zin in the extreme south. ( Joshua 15:1 )
The allotment for Joseph ( Ephraim and Manasseh ) began at the Jordan, east of the springs of Jericho, and went up from there through the desert into the hill country of Bethel. It went on from Bethel (that is, Luz), crossed over to the territory of the Arkites in Ataroth, descended westward to the territory of the Japhletites as far as the region of Lower Beth Horon and on to Gezer, ending at the Mediterranean Sea. ( Joshua 16:1-3 )
The Seven Tribes
The remaining seven tribes divided the rest of the land by casting lots.
The tribe of Benjamin allotted territory lay between the tribes of Judah and Joseph. ( Joshua 18:11 ) The tribe of Simeon’s land lay within the territory of Judah. ( Joshua 19:1-8 ) The Zebulun get a land between Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean Sea. The Issachar occupied south of Zebulun, west boundary to the Jordan River. The Asher’s territory laid along the northern shore of Mediterranean Sea. The Naphtali settled between the Asher and the Lake Samechonitis. The tribe of Dan’s inheritance sandwiched between the Ephraim and Judah, west to the Benjamin’s and east to the Mediterranean ( Joshua 18:11 - 19:46 )
Around 1000 BC, under extreme threat from foreign powers, the Israelites feels that they need a king to lead them, so they pressurized Samuel to appoint them a king ( 1 Samuel 8:1 - 21 ). Samuel anointed Saul from the tribe of Benjamin as the first king. However, it was David who created a strong unified Israelite monarchy. Under David, Israel grew into a regional power. The kingdom’s boarder stretch from the Mediterranean sea to the Arabian Desert, from the Red Sea to the Euphrates River.
David was succeeded on his death by his son, Solomon. Under the rule of Solomon, kingdom of Israel knew unprecedented peace.
832 BC– King Solomon commissioned construction of the Temple.
Kingdom of Israel
Following Solomon’s death in circa 926 BC, all the Israelite tribes except for Judah and Benjamin refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon as their king. The rebellion against Rehoboam arose after he refuse to lighten the burden of taxation and services that his father had imposed on his subjects. Thus the kingdom was split into two kingdoms : the northern Kingdom of Israel, and the southern Kingdom of Judah.
The territory of the Kingdom of Israel comprised the territories of the tribes of Zebulum, Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben and Gad. Its capital was Samaria.
In circa 732 BC, Tiglath-Pileser III king of Assyria sacked Damascus and Israel, annexing Aram and territory of the tribes of Reuben, Gad and Manasseh. People from these tribes were taken captive and resettled in the Khabur region ( 2Kings 16:9 ).
During the reign of Hosea, Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up to attack Kingdom of Israel. In circa 722 BC, Assyria conquered Samaria and deported the Israelites to Assyria ( 2Kings 17:1-6), becoming known as the “Lost Tribes of Israel”.
The Samaritans claim to be descended from survivors of the Assyrian conquest.
Kingdom of Judah
The capital of Kingdom of Judah was Jerusalem.
During Jehoiakim’s reign, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon invaded Judah. Jehoiakim became Babylon vassal for three years. Jehoiakim’s son, Jehoiachin succeeded as king of Judah in circa 597 BC, only reigned for 3 months, Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem and raided the Temple. Israelites were taken hostages and exiled. Jehoiachin was taken captive to Babylon, where he lived and died. ( 2Kings 24:8-16)
Nebuchadnezzar appointed Jeoiachin’s uncle, Zedekiah as king of Judah ( 2Kings 24:17-18).
586 BC - second rebellion erupted against Nebuchadnezzar. Jerusalem was captured, the Temple destroyed, the Israelites exiled. Zedekiah blinded and taken into exile. Judah reduced to a province of the Babylonian Empire. Gedaliah was appointed governor of the Yehud province ( 2Kings 25:1-22)