Sunday, December 25, 2011


Symbolum Apostolorum

Tuesday, October 25, 2011


Amen, is of Hebrew word aman, which means “so be it”.  Common English translation of the word include “verily”, and ‘truly”.
It was used in a number of contexts :
  referring back to words of another speaker and introducing an affirmative sentence. ( 1Kings 1:36 )
• referring back to words of another speaker but without a complementary affirmative sentence ( Nehemiah 5:13 )
• catechism of curses of the Law ( Deuteronomy 27:15-26 )
• double amen to confirm the words and invoke the fulfillment of them ( Psalm 41:13, 72:19, 89:52 )
• custom of closing prayers ( Matthew 6:13 )
• doxology ( Romans 1:25. 9:5, 11:36, 15:33 )
• conclude all of Paul’s epistles ( Romans 16:27, 1Corinthians 16:24, Galatians 6:18, Ephesians 6:24, Philippians 4:23, Colossians 4:18, 1Thessalonians 5:28, 2Thessalonians 3:18, 1Timothy 6:16, 2Timothy 4:22, Titus 3:15, Philemon 1:25, Hebrew 13:25 )
• referred Jesus as ‘the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of God’s creation’ ( Revelation 3:14 )
• concludes the New Testament ( Revelation 22:21 )

Hallelujah, Halleluyah, Alleluia (L) are transliterations of the Hebrew word Halleluya, meaning “Praise Yah”.  ‘’Yah‘ is the first letters of the name of God, YHWH.  
  Hallelujah is considered a joyful word of praise to God  ( Palms 104:35, 105:45, 106:1&48, 111:1, 112:1, 113:1&9, 115:18, 116:19, 117:2, 135:1&2121, 146:1, 147:20, 148:1, 149:1&9, 150:1&6 and Revelation 19:1, 19:3, 19:4. 19:6 )

Hosanna is from the same word Hoshana in Hebrew, meaning “please save” or “save now”.
• it was shouted in recognition of Messiahship of Jesus on His entry into Jerusalem.  ( Matthew 21:9, Mark 11:9-10, John 12:13 )
• a cry for salvation ( Matthew 21:15).

Immanuel , Emmanuel, is from Hebrew words El and Immanu, which means ”God [is] with us“.
• Immanuel is not merely a pledge of Divine assistance, but also of the nativity Jesus ( Matthew 1:23 ) as the prophesied Messiah ( Isaiah 7:14, 8:8 ) , as the ultimate fulfillment of ‘God with us’.

Friday, October 21, 2011

Names of YHWH

Jehovah ( Isaiah 42:8 ) is an anglicized representation of Hebrew Yahwah, a vocalization of the Tetragrammaton YHWH, the name of the God of Israel, in Christian Bible.

According to Jewish tradition, God’s divine name is written but not pronounced.  

Jehovah-jireh ( Genesis 22:14 ) was a place in the land of Moriah.  It was the location of the binding of Isaac, where God told Abraham to offer his son Isaac as a burnt offering.  Abraham named the place after the Lord provide a ram to sacrifice in the place of Isaac. 

The Septuagint translation is ”The Lord hath seen“.  KJV follows this meaning.
NIV render it as ”The Lord will provide“, amplifying the literal meaning along the lines of ’the Lord hath seen‘, and referring to Abraham’s earlier words, : ”God Himself will provide the lamb“ ( Genesis 22:8 )

Jehovah-mekaddeshem ( Exodus 31:13 ) means ”Lord who sanctifies“.   After God redeem Israel from Egypt, God sets Israel separates from the profane. 
NIV translated it as ”I am the Lord, who makes you holy“

Jehovah-nissi ( Exodus 17:15 ) is the name given by Moses to the altar which he built to celebrate the defeat of the Amalekites at Rephidim. 

The Septuagint translators believed the word to be derived from nus (H), meaning ”flee for refuge“ , thus rendered it ”the Lord my Refuge“ ;
while the Vulgate translators thought it to be derived from nasas (H), meaning ” hoist; lift up“, thus rendered it ”Jehovah is my Exaltation“ ;
NIV translated it as ”The Lord is my Banner “

Jehovah-rapha  ( Exodus 15:26 ) means ”Lord our healer“. 
After God delivered Israel from Egypt, Moses led Israel from Red Sea into the Desert of Shur.  When they came to Marah, they could not drink the water as it was bitter.  So the people grumbled against Moses.  After Moses cried out to the Lord, and the lord showed him a piece of wood, which he threw into the water, and the water became fit to drink.  There the Lord issued a ruling and instruction to the Israel to obey God’s commands, so no disease would ever strike them.
NIV translated it as ”I am the Lord, who heals you“

Jehovah-sabaoth ( Amos 4:13 ) is the name Amos called God, meaning ”The Lord of host“ of armies on earth, the stars and the angels.  Implying that Jehovah is the Supreme Ruler.
NIV translated it as ”Lord Almighty“

Jehovah-shammah ( Ezekiel 48:35 ) is the name given to the city in Ezekiel’s vision.  It means ”The Lord is there“

Jehovah-shalom ( Judges 6:24 ) is the name give to the place in Ophrah where Gideon built an alter, after he saw an angle of the Lord face to face.  The Lord assigned Gideon to deliver Israel from the hand of the Midianites, which Gideon accepted with much doubts. 
It means ”The Lord is peace“

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Hebrew Calendar

HebrewAcademyLengthHoliday /
Notable days
Nisan30 daysPassoverCalled Abib ( Exo 13:4, 23:15, 34:18, Deu 16:1 ), and Nisan ( Est 3:7 ) in the Tanakh. 
1st Nissan = ecclesiastical new year for counting of months and festivals.
אִיָּר / אייר
Iyyar29 daysPesach Sheni,
Lag B'Omer
Called Ziv in 1Kings 6:1, 6:37
סִיוָן / סיוון
Siwan30 daysShavuot
Tammuz29 daysSeventeenth of TammuzNamed for the babylonian god Dumuzi
Av30 daysTisha B'Av,
Tu B'Av
Elul29 daysNew Year for tithing animals
Eishri30 daysRosh Hasahnah,
Yom Kippur,
Shimini Atzeret,
Simchat Torah
Called Ethanim in 1Kings 8:2. 
1st Tishrei = civil new year, .
מַרְחֶשְׁוָן / מרחשוון
Marheshwan29 or 30daysCalled Bul in 1Kings 6:38
Kislew30 or 29 daysHanukkah
Tebeth29 daysTenth of Tevet
Shevat30 daysTu BishvatNew Year for trees and agricultural tithes
12 #
אֲדָר א׳
Adar I30 daysonly in Leap years
אֲדָר /
 אֲדָר ב׳
Adar / Adar II29 daysPurim

Jewish Festivals

Jewish FestivalsHebrew Date
( Gregorian equivalent )
Biblical ReferenceDescription
Rosh Hashana / Yom Teru'ah
"Jewish New Year" / "Festival of Trumpets"
= New Year for Vegetable tithes
1st & 2nd Tishrei
( Sep )
Lev 23:23-25 ;
Num 29:1-6
Day of Judgement.   
Tzom Gedaliah
"Fast of Geladiah"
3rd Tishrei
( Sep )
2Kings 25:25-26Commemorate assination of Geladiah, Governor of Israel under Nebuchadnetzar King of Babylonia.
Yom Kippur
"Day of Atonement"
10th Tishrei
( Sep )
Lev 16:1-34 ;  
Lev 23:26-32
Pray for forgiveness between Man and  God. 
Holiest day in Jewish Calendar.
"Feast of tabernacles"
15th - 21st Tishrei  
( Oct )
Lev 23:34 ;
Deu 16:13-17
Commemorate the Hebrews' 40 years of dwelling in the desert after Exodus from Egypt.
Firstfruit of wine and oil.
Book of Qoheleth read.
Hoshana Rabbah
"Great Hoshana"
21st Tishrei
( Oct )
Shmini Atzeret
"Assembly of the Eighty Day"
22nd Tishrei
( Oct )
Lev 23:36Last day of Sukkot
Simchat Torah
"Rejoicing of the Law"
23rd Tishrei
( Oct )
[ Psalm 119 ]Celebrate the end of the annual reading of Torah.
Commencing reading Torah
"Festival of Lights"
25th Kislev -
3rd Tevet
( Dec )
1Macc4 ; 
2Mac 10 
Commemorate truimph of Jews, under Maccabees, over Greek during 164 BC
Asarah BeTevet
"Fast of Tevet"
= New Year for Trees
15th Shevat
( Jan )
2Kings 25:4Beginnig of seige of Jerusalem in 68BC
Ta'anit Esther
"Fast of Esther"
13th Adart
( Mar )
Esther 9:31Commemorate deliverence of Jews by Esther in Persian, during ca 400 BC.
"Festival of Lots"
14th Adart
( Mar )
Book of EstherBook of Esther read.
= New Year for Kings1st Nisan
( Mar )
Erev Pesah
"Fast of the First Born"
14th Nisan
( Mar )
Ex 12:29Commemorate God sparing the Hebrews when He killed the first born of Egypt
Pesah "Passover" ( Easter ) &
Khag Shavuot "Feast of Unleavened Bread"
15th - 21st Nisan
( Apr )
Ex 12:15-20Firstfuit of barley.
Commemorate exodus from Eygpt during 1301s BC. Song of Songs read.
Sefirat Ha'Omer
"Counting the Sheaves"
( Apr )
Lev 23:15-16Counting the 49 days between Pesach and Shavuot
Lag Ba'Omer
"33rd day of Sheaves"
18th Iyar
( Apr )
"Festival of Weeks"
( Pentecost )
5th Sivan
( Jun )
Lev 26:16-21 ;
Deut 16:10
Commemorate the giving of Ten Commandments. 
Firstfruit of wheat
Tzom Tammuz
"Fast of Tamuz"
17th Tamuz
( Jul )
Zec 8:19Commemorate destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman
Tish'a B'Av
"Ninth of Av"
9th Av
( Aug )
2Kings 25:8-9 ;
Commemorate destruction of First & Second Temple. 
Book of Lamentation read.
Tu B'Av
"Fifteenth of Av"
15th Av
( Aug )
Festival for unmarried girls.
= New Year for animal tithes1st Elul 
( Aug )

Yamim Nora’im “High Holy Days” :
1. Rosh Hashnah “Jewish New Year” / Yom Teru’ah “Festival of Trumpets”
2. Tzom Gedalya “Fast of Gedalia”
3. Yom Kippur “Day of Atonement”

Shalosh Regalim “Pilgrimage Festivals” :
1. Sukkot “ Feast of Tabernacles”
2. Shavuot “Feast of Weeks”
3. Pesach “Passover”

Minor Fast days :
1. Tzom Gedaliah "Fast of Gedalia"
2. Asarah B'Tevet "Fast of Tevet"
3. Ta'anit Esther "Fast of Esther"
4. Ta'anit Bechorim "Fast of the Firstborn"
5. Tzom Tammuz "Fast of Tammuz"

Major Fast days :
1. Yom Kippur "Day of Atonement"
2. Tishah B'Av "Ninth of Av"

New Years :
1. 1st Nisan“New Year for Kings” 
2. 1st Elul“New Year for animal tithes” 
3. 1st Tishrei“New Year for vegetable tithes”  
4. 15th Shevat “New Year for trees”  

Thursday, October 6, 2011

The Passion of Christ @ Passion Flower

Passiflora, is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants.

Passiflora is grown for the passionfruits ( P. edulis, P. foetida, P. incarnate, P. laurifolia, P. ligularis, P. maliformis, P. quadrangularis ) and passionflowers ( P. alata, P. aurantia, P. biflora, P. coccinea, P. citrine, P. racemosa, P. rubra  ).

The ‘passion’ in passion flowers or passion fruits refers to the passion of Jesus Christ.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Spanish Christian missionaries adopted the unique physical structures of this plants, especially the flowers, as symbol of the last days of Jesus and his crucifixion:

 the pointed tips of the leaves represent the Holy Lance.
( Instead, on of the soldiers pierced Jesus’ side with a spear, bringing a sudden flow of blood and water.  John 19:34 )

• the tendrils represent the whips used in the flagellation of Christ.  
( Then Pilate took Jesus and had him flogged.  John 19:1 )

• the 10 petals and sepals represent the 10 faithful apostles ( excluding Peter the denial and Judas Iscariot the betrayer )

• the flower’s radial filaments, can numbered > 100 and vary from flower to flower, represent the crown of thorns
( The soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on his head.   John 19:2 ).

• the chalice-shaped ovary with its receptacle represents a hammer or the Holy Grail

• the 3 stigmas represent the 3 nails

• the 5 anthers represent 5 wounds ( four by nails and one by the lance )
( … “Unless I see the nail marks in his hands and put my finger where the nails were, and put my hand into his side, I will no beilieve.”  John 20:24 )

• the blue and white colour represent Heaven and Purity

Wednesday, October 5, 2011

Tomorrow ...

Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. 
Each day has enough trouble of its own.
Matthew 6:34 马太福音

Do not boast about tomorrow, for you do not know what a day may bring.
Proverbs 27:1 箴言

Saturday, August 6, 2011

Judas's Ear = Auricularia auricula-judae

Judas’s ear is Auricularia auricula-judae, a species of edible Auriculariaceae fungus found worldwide.

Its specific epithet is derived from the belief that Judas Iscariot hanged himself from an elder tree ( Sambusus sp ), of which the fungus grows upon.

The common name “Judas’s ear”, then shortened to “Judas ear”, and eventually become “Jew’s ear” due to anti-Semitism in Britain, while “jelly ear” and other names are sometimes used.  

The species was first mentioned as Tremella auricular by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753’s Species Plantarum, and later described by Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard as Tremella auricular-judae.  However, the genus Tremella is now reserved for fungal species that live as parasites on other fungi.

In 1791, Bulliard transferred the species to the genus Peziza.
In 1822, Elias Magnus Fries transferred it to the genus Exidia.
In 1860, Miles Joseph Berkeley described it as a member of Hirneola.
In 1888, Joseph Schröter named it Auricularia auricula-judae.

The fruit body of A. auricularia-judea is normally 3 – 8 cm.  it s distinctively shaped, typically being reminiscent of a floppy ear.  Its texture is tough, gelatinous, elastic when fresh, but it dries hard and brittle.  

While it is not a choice edible mushroom in the West, it has long been popular in China.  It is called 黑木耳 in Mandarin.

Biblical Narratives

Matthew 27
1 Early in the morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people made their plans how to have Jesus executed. 2 So they bound him, led him away and handed him over to Pilate the governor.
3 When Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse and returned the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and the elders. 4 “I have sinned,” he said, “for I have betrayed innocent blood.”

   “What is that to us?” they replied. “That’s your responsibility.”

 5 So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away and hanged himself.

 6 The chief priests picked up the coins and said, “It is against the law to put this into the treasury, since it is blood money.” 7 So they decided to use the money to buy the potter’s field as a burial place for foreigners. 8 That is why it has been called the Field of Blood to this day. 9 Then what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled: “They took the thirty pieces of silver, the price set on him by the people of Israel, 10 and they used them to buy the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me.”

Acts 1
18 (With the payment he received for his wickedness, Judas bought a field; there he fell headlong, his body burst open and all his intestines spilled out. 19 Everyone in Jerusalem heard about this, so they called that field in their language Akeldama, that is, Field of Blood.)