Wednesday, May 1, 2013

Jesus vs Confusius

 ( 仲弓问孔子如何处世才能合乎仁道?孔子回答道:“出门与同仁行礼如见贵客一般,对民如大祭一样凝重,自己不喜欢的事不要强加给别人。如此在朝上就不会招谁怨,在家中私下的交往也不招谁恨”仲弓感谢道:“我虽迟钝,但一定要牢记先生的话。”)

子贡问曰:‘有一言而可以终生行之者乎?’ 。子曰:‘其恕乎。己所不欲,勿施于人。”

马太福音 7:12 ( 新译本CNV )

Israel - A Brief History : Modern Era

World War I
1914, July 28th – WW I began.
1914 – Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in WW I.
1918, November 11th – WW I ended.
1920, August 10th – Treaty of Sèvres signed between the Ottoman Empire and Allies.  Palestine placed under British mandate.

British Mandate

1917-1918 – During WWI, Palestine was governed by Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (OETA)

1920, July 1st – Palestine governed under a civil administration

1923, September 29th – British Mandate for Palestine came into effect.  The Mandate includes Palestine and Transjordan.

1946, May 25th – Transjordan gain independence.   Officially called Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

1948, May 14th – British Mandate ended

United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine

1947, November 29th  - United Nations General Assembly recommended the adoption and implementation of the partition plan of Mandatory Palestine.

The United Nation Partition Plan for Palestine would, after the termination of the British Mandate, lead to the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and the Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem.  The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements : Arab nationalism and Jewish nationalism.

It was accepted by the Jewish  but rejected by leaders of the Arabs.

1947, November 30th – Civil War started between Arabs and Jewish.

Independent State of Israel

1948, May 14th – Declaration of Independence of State of Israel.

1948, May 15thFirst Arab-Israel War began with invasion of Arab States

1949 – Armistice Agreements signed between Israel and Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria.

The Armistice Agreements saw Israel had control of Galilee, Jezreel, Negev, West Jerusalem and the Costal Plain.  The Gaza Strip and West Bank were occupied by Egypt and Jordan respectively.

1949, May 11th – Israel admitted as a member of the UN.

1967, June 5th  – Third Arab-Israel War (Six-Day War) began with Israel bombing Egyptian air-fields.

Israel took control of West Bank (from Jordan), Gaza Strip (from Egypt), East Jerusalem, Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsular.

West Bank remained under military occupation.  Gaza Strip remained independent of Israel.  Golan Heights and East Jerusalem occupied by Israel.  Sinai Peninsular has returned to Egypt in 1979 as part of Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.


Today’s State of Israel is divided into 6 administrative districts : Northern, Haifa, Center, Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, and Southern.   Districts are further divided into 15 sub-districts.

East Jerusalem and Golan Heights considered part of Israel territory.  East Jerusalem has been included in the Jerusalem District as of 1967.  Golan Heights aligned into Northern District.

West Bank and Gaza Strip remained Israeli-occupied territories.  Israel control the airspace, territorial waters and border crossings.  Administration is under Palestinian Authority. 

Israel - A Brief History : Classical Period

Hasmonean Dynasty

538 BC - Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered the Babylon and took over its empire.  The Achaemenid Empire spanned from Asia to Africa and Europe. 

538–518 BC - Israelites were allowed to return to Judah and rebuilt the Temple ( Ezra 1:1-4 ; 6:13-18).
456 BC - a second group led by Ezra and Nehemiah returned.

334 BC - Alexander the Great defeated the Persian and conquered the empire.  After the death of Alexander, his generals divided the empire among themselves.  Judah became part of the Seleucid Empire.

Maccabees Revolt

During the 2nd century BC, Antiochus IV Epiphanes ruler of the Seleucid Empire pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy.  Jewish religious practices were forbidden.  Mattathias , a rural Jewish priest from Modiin, Mattathias the Hasmonean killed a Hellenistic Jew who offered a sacrifice to an idol.  Then Mattathias and his five sons then fled to wilderness of Judah.

After Mattathias death, his son Judas Maccabee led guerrilla attacks against Seleucid army.  Jerusalem was recaptured and the Temple cleansed.  The celebratory festival of Hanukkah instituted.  ( 1 Maccabees ;  2 Maccabees ; The Wars of the Jews )

160 BC - Judas died in a battle.  His brother Jonathan succeeded as army commander and High Priest. 


142 BC - Jonathan was assassinated, and was succeeded by Simon.  Simon came to terms with Demitrius II Necator, the Seleucid king.  Maccabees won autonomy, yet the region remained a province of the Seleucid Empire.  Simon led the people in peace and prosperity, until he was assassinated. 

129 BC - Judea was freed from Seleucid rule on the death of Antiochus VII Sidetes, the last Seleucid king. 

63 BC - Judea became a protectorate of Roman Empire, coming under the administration of a governor.  Judea was allowed a king.

Herodian Dynasty

During the time of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus conquered Madaba, Sehechum, Transjordan, Samaria, Galilee and Idumea ( Edom ).  Edomites were forced to convert to Judaism.  The Edomites were gradually integrated into the Judean nation, and some of them reach high ranking positions.

During the time of Hasmonean ruler Alexander Jannaeus, Edomite Antipas was appointed governor of Edom.  Antipas’ son,  Antipater was the chief adviser to Hasmonean ruler Hyrcanus II.

47 BC - Julius Caesar appointed Antipater as procurator of Judea.  Antipater’s sons, Phasael and Herold as governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively.

40 BC - Herod made king of the Jews by the Roman Senate.
19 BC - Herod commissioned expansion of the Temple.
4 BC - Herod the Great died.  Judea made a Roman province.  Judea was divided among his three sons.  Herod Archelaus ruled Judea, Edom and Samaria.  Herold Philip I ruled Decapolis. Trachonitis and Iturea.  Herod Antipas ruled Galilee and Perea.

6 AD - Judea made a Roman province.

34 AD - Agrippa I ruled Galilee and Perea.  In 41 AD Judea added to his rule.
70 AD - Herod’s Temple destroyed by Roman troops during the Seige of Jerusalem, ending the Great Jewish Revolt.
92 AC - Herodian Dynasty ended.  Judea fully incorporated into Roman province.

Roman Imperial
131 AD - Roman emperor Hadrian renamed Jerusalem “Aelia Capitolina”, Judea renamed “Palaestina
285 AD - Roman emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire’s administration into eastern and western halves.
324 AD - Roman emperor Constantine I transferred the eastern capital from Nicomedia to Constantinople.
395 AD - following the death of Roman emperor Theodosius I, Roman Empire divided politically
476 AD - fall of Western Roman Empire.

Byzantine Empire
480 AD - Western Empire emperor Zeno separated himself from Roman Empire.
614 AD, Jerusalem conquered by Persian, Jews were left to self-govern.
617 AD, Byzatine recaptured Jerusalem, Judaism banned, Jews fled to Baltic.

Arab Caliphs
636 AD - Palestine conquered by the Arab
691 AD - Dome of the Rock constructed on Temple Mount.
705 AD - Al-Aqsa Mosquue constructed on Temple Mount.

Crusader States Vs Ayyubid Dynasty
1071 AD - Muslims of Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantine army in Manzikert. Byzantine emperor Alexis I plead Pope Urban II of Roman Catholic in Rome to the aid to free Jerusalem from Muslim rule.

Crusader states were created in the Levant during the crusades :
1098–1149 : County of Edessa
1098–1268 : Principality of Antioch
1099–1291 : Kingdom of Jerusalem
1104–1289 : County of Tripoli

1187 - Egyptian Muslims of Ayyubid Dynasty concurred Jerusalem.
1193 - civil war within Ayyubid Dynasty
1250 - Mamluk overthrew Ayyubid Dynasty in Egypt
1260 - Mongols overthrew Ayyubid Dynasty in Aleppo
1341 - fall of Ayyubid Dynasty

Mamluk Dynasties
1260 - Mamluk Sultan Qutuz defeated Mongols in Battle of Ain Jalut, conquered Palestine
1291 - Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil conquered Acre, capital of Kingdom of Jerusalem

1516 - Turkish Ottoman Empire Sultan Selim II conquered Palestine
1799 – Napoleon briefly occupied Palestine
1878 – First modern Jewish settlement founded in Petah Tikva.

Large scare return of Jew from the diaspora back to Israel began in 1882.
1882-1903 : First Aliyah – 35,000 Jews returned
1904-1914 : Second Aliyah – 40,000 Jews returned
1919-1923 : Third Aliyah – 40,000 Jews returned
1924-1929 : Fourth Aliyah – 82,000 Jews returned
1929-1939 : Fifth Aliyah – 250,000 Jews returned

1909 – First Hebrew-speakng city, Ahuzat Bayit ( later Tel Aviv ) established.